Capital management services liquidating file
The appointment is generally done in the plan, confirmation order and trust agreement. 94-45, the plan and disclosure statement must explain how the bankruptcy estate will treat the transfer of its assets to the trust for federal income tax purposes.
The liquidating trustee must also demonstrate that he or she qualifies as a representative of the estate. 94-45 notes that it does not define as a matter of law the circumstances under which an organization will be classified as a liquidating trust for income tax purposes, the conditions are commonly incorporated into plans and liquidating trust agreements whether or not an advance ruling is sought. A transfer to a liquidating trust for the benefit of creditors must be treated for all purposes of the Revenue Code as a transfer to creditors to the extent that the creditors are beneficiaries of the trust.
Whether the trust is the product of a bankruptcy plan or a state law plan of dissolution, certain factors must be considered. Section 1123(b)(3)(B) of the Bankruptcy Code allows this prospect to be avoided.
To find out more, Lawyer Monthly hears from Ashley B. It states that a plan may provide for the retention and enforcement by the debtor, by the trustee, or by a representative of the estate appointed for such purpose, of any such claim or interest.
In 1994, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) issued Revenue Procedure 94-45 (“Rev. 94-45”), which established guidelines applicable to liquidating trusts formed to implement a Chapter 11 plan, which are similar to the considerations applicable to a liquidating trust outside bankruptcy. 94-45 lists twelve conditions which, if met, will generally result in the issuance by the IRS of an advance determination classifying the trust as a liquidating trust under Treas. The plan, disclosure statement, and any separate trust instrument must provide for consistent valuations of the transferred property by the trustee and the creditors, and those valuations must be used for all federal income tax purposes.
If followed, these guidelines should ensure that the establishment of the trust will be treated as a transfer from the bankruptcy estate to the beneficiaries followed by a deemed transfer by the beneficiaries to the liquidating trust. Finally, a liquidating trust may lose its grantor trust status “if the liquidation is unreasonably prolonged or if the liquidation purpose becomes so obscured by business activities that the declared purpose of liquidation can be said to be lost or abandoned.” 26 CFR § 301.7701-4(d).
Absent this provision, a debtor would be required to investigate and prosecute all avoidance and other causes of action prior to confirming a plan, which may take years.
Section 1123(b) (3) of the Bankruptcy Code facilitates the use of a liquidating trust for prompt administration of the estate by providing post-confirmation standing to an appointed representative of the estate to enforce claims and interests.
The degree of specificity required in identifying preserved claims varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Additional considerations include retaining bankruptcy court jurisdiction in the plan and trust agreement so that a liquidating trustee can seek court approval of certain actions and decisions made on behalf of the trust.
An oversight committee is often utilized as well to oversee the liquidating trustee’s certain decisions and actions.
While Delaware corporations may take advantage of a “safe harbor” process that involves notice to creditors and guidance of the Delaware Court of Chancery in approving reserves, this process is rarely invoked and is not available for other Delaware entity forms.
Failure to make “reasonable reserve” is a basis for liability on the part of the person(s) conducting the liquidation.