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This likely reflects a response to the Great Recession and consequent stagnation in household income.11 Most pertinent, mothers in the bottom half of the income scale are far more likely than more affluent mothers to prefer working full-time—40 percent of mothers with annual family incomes of less than ,000 said full-time work would be ideal, compared with 25 percent of mothers with incomes of ,000 or higher (Wang 2013).
Furthermore, another recent survey, by magazine, of only men, found that almost 60 percent of working fathers would choose part-time work if they could still have a meaningful and productive career, only slightly higher than men without children at home.12 A recent poll of 1,000 U. adults by the poll documents the extent and incidence of underemployment, by considering a broader scope than just working part-time hours or not working at all.
This suggests a kind of hidden underemployment, in addition to those who work part-time but desire full-time workweeks. “Presidential Memorandum—Enhancing Workplace Flexibilities and Work-Life Program.” June 23. Wood, Stephen, George Michaelides, and Peter Totterdell.
2011; Mc Namara, Bohle, and Quinlan 2011; Golden et al. 2012; Glauber 2013; Wood, Michaelides, and Totterdell 2013; Kelly et al. They can be particularly acute among hourly paid workers, especially with lower incomes (Henly and Lambert 2014; Correll, Trimble-O’Connor, and Williams 2014; Swanberg, Watson, and Eastman 2014; Alexander and Haley-Lock 2013; Watson and Swanberg 2013; Carré and Tilly 2012; Mc Crate 2012; Lambert, Haley-Lock, and Henly 2012; Martin et al. 2004; Henly, Shaefer, and Waxman 2006; Yildirim and Aycan 2008; Kalleberg 2011).
Moreover, it is becoming recognized that when work hours and schedules generally are variable, it undermines elements of well-being, such as sleep time.9 Researchers and advocates are calling for laws and regulations that could help ease the incidence, frequency, or consequences of having too few or unpredictable work hours.
Recent reports and articles include: Enchautegui 2013).10 This section summarizes evidence from the literature regarding which workers report being underemployed and which workers tend to experience fluctuating work schedules and their economic impacts.
It has the indirect effect of restraining or making unpredictable the income that would fuel consumption spending on which the economy depends, and directly affects workers’ daily lives, by complicating the navigation of nonwork responsibilities such as parenting, other forms of caregiving, and schooling.6 At the same time, however, there is a significant segment of the workforce that may have the number of hours they prefer but the timing of their work schedules—including through irregular shifts, unwelcome overtime work, and lack of schedule control—makes daily work-life navigation difficult.
Interestingly, there is also a nontrivial proportion of workers who actually would prefer to work fewer hours even if it means proportionally less income.